B.Tech. II Year II Sem. L T/P/D C

3 0/0/0 3

Prerequisite: Mathematics-I, Thermodynamics, Basic of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

Course Objectives:

  • Understanding the basic characteristic of a typical instrument.
  • Identifying errors and their types that would occur in an instrument.
  • Identifying properties used for evaluating the thermal systems.
  • The concept of transducer and Various types and their characters.

Course Outcome:

  • To identify various elements and their purpose in typical instruments, to identify various errors that would occur in instruments.
  • Analysis of errors so as to determine correction factors for each instrument.
  • To understand static and dynamic characteristics of instrument and should be able to determine loading response time.
  • For given range of displacement should be able to specify transducer, it accurate and loading time of that transducer.


Definition – Basic principles of measurement – Measurement systems, generalized configuration and functional description of measuring instruments – examples. Static and Dynamic performance characteristics– sources of errors, Classification and elimination of errors. Measurement of Displacement: Theory and construction of various transducers to measure displacement – Using Piezo electric, Inductive, capacitance, resistance, ionization and Photo electric transducers; Calibration procedures.


Measurement of Temperature: Various Principles of measurement-Classification: Expansion Type: Bimetallic Strip- Liquid in glass Thermometer; Electrical Resistance Type: Thermistor, Thermocouple, RTD; Radiation Pyrometry: Optical Pyrometer; Changes in Chemical Phase: Fusible Indicators and Liquid crystals. Measurement of Pressure: Different principles used- Classification: Manometers, Dead weight pressure gauge Tester (Piston gauge), Bourdon pressure gauges, Bulk modulus pressure gauges, Bellows, Diaphragm gauges. Low pressure measurement – Thermal conductivity gauges, ionization pressure gauges, McLeod pressure gauge.


Measurement of Level: Direct methods – Indirect methods – Capacitive, Radioactive, Ultrasonic, Magnetic, Cryogenic Fuel level indicators –Bubbler level indicators.

Flow measurement: Rotameter, magnetic, Ultrasonic, Turbine flowmeter, Hot – wire anemometer, Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA).

Measurement of Speed: Mechanical Tachometers, Electrical tachometers, Non- contact type Stroboscope; Measurement of Acceleration and Vibration: Different simple instruments – Principles of Seismic instruments – Vibrometer and accelerometer using this principle- Piezo electric accelerometer.


Stress-Strain measurements: Various types of stress and strain measurements –Selection and installation of metallic strain gauges; electrical strain gauge – gauge factor – method of usage of resistance strain gauge for bending, compressive and tensile strains – Temperature compensation techniques, Use of strain gauges for measuring torque, Strain gauge Rosettes.

Measurement of Humidity: Moisture content of gases, Sling Psychrometer, Absorption Psychrometer, Dew point meter. Measurement of Force, Torque and Power- Elastic force meters, load cells, Torsion meters, Dynamometers.


Elements of Control Systems: Introduction, Importance – Classification – Open and closed systems- Servomechanisms – Examples with block diagrams – Temperature, speed and position control systems- Transfer functions- First and Second order mechanical systems


  1. Principles of Industrial Instrumentation & Control Systems, - Alavala, - Cengage Learning
  2. Basic Principles – Measurements (Instrumentation) & Control Systems – S. Bhaskar – Anuradha Publications.


  1. Measurement Systems: Applications & design, E. O. Doebelin, TMH
  2. Instrumentation, Measurement & Analysis, B.C. Nakra & K.K. Choudhary, TMH
  3. Experimental Methods for Engineers / Holman
  4. Mechanical and Industrial Measurements / R. K. Jain/ Khanna Publishers.
  5. Mechanical Measurements / Sirohi and Radhakrishna / New Age International.
  • Created
    Dec 19, 2020
  • Updated
    Dec 19, 2020
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